SKU: C045  / 
    CAS Number: 63775-96-2

    Cyclosporin D, EvoPure®

    S/.1,392.50

    Cyclosporin D is a hydroxylated metabolite of cyclosporin A.  Cyclosporin D and other cyclosporin metabolites have been found to have lower (<10%) immunosuppressant activity than cyclosporin A.  Cyclosporin D has been found to reverse daunorubicin resistance in some resistant leukemia cells by possibly inhibiting the efflux functions of P-glycoprotein.

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    Mechanism of ActionCyclosporin B (and other cyclosporin A metabolites) have lower immunosuppressive activity but likely operate under the same mechanism as cyclosporin A described below.

    After entering a T-cell, Cyclosporin A associates with the cytosolic protein cyclophilin which helps in protein folding. Cyclosporin A binds to cyclophilins and this complex binds another cytosolic protein phosphatase called Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) that dephosphorylates a transcription factor (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, or NF-AT) needed for expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2.). It also blocks the pathway to nitric oxide synthesis via tumor necrosis factor (TNFa) and Interleukin 1a.
    Cancer ApplicationsCyclosporin’s immunosuppressive properties and potential toxicity can be studied during in vitro assays. Other metabolites of Cyclosporin A (AM1, AM1c, DihydroAM1, AM19, and AM4N) can also be studied (Vollenbroeker B et al, 2005).
    Molecular FormulaC63H113N11O12
    ReferencesAnderson MA and Gusella JF (1984) Use of Cyclosporin A in establishing Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In Vitro 20(11):856-858. PMID 6519667

    Copelan KR, Yatscoff RW and McKenna RM (1990) Immunosuppressive activity of Cyclosporine metabolites compared and characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Clin. Chem. 36(2): 225-229. PMID 2137384

    Dreyfuss, M et al (1976) Cyclosporin A and C. Eur. J. Appl Microbiol. 3(2): 125-133

    Laupacis A et al. PA (1982) Cyclosporin A: A powerful immunosuppressant. Can. Med Assoc. J 126(9):1041-1046 PMID 7074504

    Matsuda S and Koyasu S (2000) Mechanisms of Action of Cyclosporine. Immunopharmacol. 47(2-3): 119-125. PMID 10878286

    Matsuda, S (2000) Mechanisms of action of cyclosporine. Immunopharmacol. 47(2-3):119-125. PMID 10878286

    Oliyai R. & Stella V. J. (1992) Kinetics and mechanism of isomerization of cyclosporin A. Pharm. Res. 9(5):617-622

    Stiller, CR and Ulan RA (1981) Cyclosporin A: A Powerful Immunosuppressant."Can. Med. Assn. 126 (1981): 1041-046.

    Vollenbroeker B et al (2005) Determination of cyclosporine and its metabolites in blood via HPLC-MS and correlation to clinically important parameters. Transplant Proc. 37(4):1741-1744 PMID 15919451

    Wang, PC et al. (1989) Isolation of 10 Cyclosporine Metabolites from Human Bile. Drug Metab. Dispos. 17(3): 292-296 PMID 2568911

    Watashi K, Hijikata M, Hosaka M, Yamaji M, Shimotohno K (2003) Cyclosporin A suppresses replication of hepatitis C virus genome in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatol. 38(5):1282-1288. PMID 14578868

    Zheng XS, Chan T, and Zhou HH (2004) Genetic and genomic approaches to identify and study the targets of bioactive small molecules. Chem and Biol 11(5):609-618 PMID 15157872