Microbiology refers to the study of microorganisms which encompasses bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology. Several fields of microbiology including medical microbiology, food microbiology, and clinical microbiology rely on the ability to culture and manipulate microbes. In each of these fields, antibiotics serve as an extremely useful tool to help culture or characterize bacteria. In research settings, antibiotics are frequently used as selection agents to select for resistant bacteria in transformation and transduction procedures. In medical settings, antibiotics can be used to determine how effective an antibiotic may be in vivo or to track antibiotic resistance patterns in emerging antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics can also be used in food microbiology screening labs to inhibit the growth of non-pathogenic food borne bacteria.