• Kanamycin A sulfate, EvoPure packaged and labeled.

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SKU: K013

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Description

Kanamycin A Sulfate, EvoPure® is the highly purified sulfate salt form of Kanamycin A.  Kanamycin A is the major component of the Kanamycin complex (minor components include Kanamycin B and C).  The product is ≥99.0% pure by HPLC.

Kanamycin is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic.  Kanamycin was isolated from the soil bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus in 1957 by Hamao Umezawa at the institute of Microbial Chemistry (Tokyo).  Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria and Mycoplasma.  It is used to select for transformants (bacteria, fungi, plant, mammalian) which have been successfully transformed with a plasmid containing a kanamycin resistance gene. 

Kanamycin A Sulfate, EvoPure® is soluble in water. It is practically insoluble in ethanol, DMSO, acetone, chloroform, ether and ethyl acetate.

We also offer:

  • Kanamycin Sulfate (K008)
  • Kanamycin Acid Sulfate, BP (K004)
  • Kanamycin Acid Sulfate, EP (K029)
  • Kanamycin B Sulfate, EvoPure® (K014)

Kanamycin EvoPure® products are available as highly purified fractions (see Technical Data).  Each compound is fully characterized by spectral analysis and a comprehensive C of A is provided which includes HPLC, MS, HNMR and FTIR data.

    CAS Number

    25389-94-0

    Molecular Formula

    C18H36N4O11· xH2SO4 (lot specific)

    Molecular Weight

    484.50 g/mol (Free base)

    Mechanism of Action

    Aminoglycosides target the 30S ribosomal subunit, lodging between the 16S rRNA and S12 protein. This interferes with the translational initiation complex causing misreading of the mRNA, and production of a faulty or nonexistent protein.

    Storage Conditions

    -20 °C

    Tariff Code

    2941.90.1010

    Spectrum

    Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with bactericidal activity, used mostly against Gram-negative bacteria.

Applications

    Application

    The product can be used as a reference standard, in impurity profiling, and to analyze the individual effects of the Kanamycin A fraction .

    Cancer Applications

    Kanamycin was used in an experimental mouse model of colorectal cancer. Following short-term induction of colitis by an irritant (dextran sulfate sodium), colon cancer cells (colon 26) were instilled intrarectally. The result was that tumors formed at the luminal mucosal surface. This model is useful to examine chemotherapeutic agents that may suppress the growth of colorectal cancer (Takahashi et al, 2004).

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Kanamycin Sulfate was used in an in vitro model system of Henle intestinal epithelial cell infection (Henle 407 cell line) by Shigella flexneri. Bactericidal levels of Kanamycin ablated infectivity of Shigella (Hale and Bonventre, 1979).

    Microbiology Applications

    Kanamycin is commonly used in clinical in vitromicrobiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram positive and gram negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options.  Representative MIC values include:

    • Salmonella enteritidis 62.5 µg/mL
    • Escherichia coli 31.2 µg/mL
    • For a representative list of kanamycin MIC values, click here.

    Media Supplements

    Kanamycin can be used as a selective agent in several types of isolation media:

    Kanamycin Aesculin Azide AgarEnterococci isolation in food
    Perfringens Agar - SFP and TSC selective supplements for the isolation of Clostridium perfringens

    Plant Biology Applications

    Kanamycin is often used in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (npt II gene) as a selection marker which confers resistance to kanamycin (and G418).

    Gene transfer to cereal cells (Triticum monococcum)  mediated by protoplast transformation with naked DNA. Plasmid contained a gene of interest along with the NTP II gene and after insertion, and transformed cells were selected on medium containing Kanamycin (Lorz et al 1985).

    In a study of drought and salt tolerance, soybeans (DT84 cultivar) were genetically modified using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to insert the GmDREB6 gene along with the nptII gene to select for plants resistant to kanamycin.  GmDREB6 is a dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (DREBs), a plant transcription factor that binds to specific region of promoter to activate expression of mechanisms to cope with cellular dehydration. Overexpression of GmDREB6 increased transcription levels of GmP5CS gene, which caused a higher intracellular proline content in plants growing under salt stress (Nguyen et al, 2019).

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White powder

    Source

    Semi-synthetic. Originally derived from Streptomyces kanamyceticus

Technical Data

HPLC Chromatogram showing highly purified (99% pure) Kanamycin A Sulfate, EvoPure®

Kanamycin A Sulfate EvoPure

References

    References

    TOKU-E Product Reference

    Pryjma, et al. used Kanamycin Sulfate to select for transformed, kanamycin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni cells: "FdhTU-Modulated Formate Dehydrogenase Expression and Electron Donor Availability Enhance Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni following Host Cell Infection"

    General References

    Aragão FJL and Brasileiro ACM (2009) Positive, negative and marker-free strategies for transgenic plant selection. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 14(1):1-10

    Davis BD (1987)  Mechanism of bactericidal action of Aminoglycosides.  Microbiol. Rev.  51(3):341-350

    Grant CCR, Konkel ME, Cieplak Jr W, and Tompkins LS (1993)  Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of Campylobacter jejuni in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cell cultures. Infect. and Immun. 61(5):1764-1771  PMID X

    Kaur P and Bansal KC (2010)  Efficient production of transgenic tomatoes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Biologica plantarum 54 (2): 344-348

    Lorz H, Baker B and Schell J (1985)  Gene transfer to cereal cells mediated by protoplast transformation. Molec. And Gen. Genetics 199:178-182

    Nguyen QH et al (2019)  Overexpression  of the GmDREB6 gene enhances proline accumulatin and salt tolerance in genetically modified soybean plants. Sci Rep. 9:19663  PMID 31873128

    Sneader W (2005)  Drug Discovery: A history. John Wiley & Sons pp 302

    Sharma MK, Solanke AU, Jani D, Singh Y and Sharma Ak (2009) A simple and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated procedure for transformation of tomato. J. Biosci. 34(3): 423–433

    Takahashi T, Morotomi Ma nd Nomoto K (2004)  A novel mouse model of rectal cancer established by orthotopic implantation of colon cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 95(6):514-519  PMID 15182433

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