• Cycloheximide packaged and labeled.

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SKU: C001

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Description

Cycloheximide is a glutarimide antibiotic and natural fungicide isolated from Streptomyces griseus and a protein synthesis inhibitor in eukaryotic cells.  It was discovered by Alma Whiffen-Barksdale of Upjohn Company in 1946.  It is routinely used as a selection agent in several types of isolation media.  It can be used as a tool in molecular biology to determine the half life of proteins, or in in chase experiments to analyze protein degradation.  Cycloheximide is soluble in DMSO and ethanol. 

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We also offer:

  • Cycloheximide Solution (10% in DMSO, Sterile)(C084)
  • Cycloheximide, CulturePure® (C071)
  • Cycloheximide A, EvoPure® (C123)

    CAS Number

    66-81-9

    Molecular Formula

    C15H23NO4

    Molecular Weight

    281.35

    Mechanism of Action

    Cycloheximide binds to the ribosome and inhibits the eEF2-mediated translocation step in protein synthesis, thus blocking translational elongation.

    Storage Conditions

    Ambient

    Tariff Code

    2941.90.1050

    Spectrum

    Cycloheximide is used for fungi and yeast, including fungi found in brewing test media. It has lower activity against bacteria.

Applications

    Application

    Cycloheximide is used in molecular biology for ribosome profiling / translational profiling to understand the complexity of translation initiation. Cycloheximide is used to study protein synthesis, expression and degradation, and determine the half-life of proteins.

    Cancer Applications

    Pretreatment with Cycloheximide followed by estrogen stimulation prevented estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism in perfused breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells. This suggested that the estrogen stimulation requires synthesis of mRNA and protein (Neeman and Degani, 1989).

    In studying the “immune escape” of cancer cells, in human colorectal cancer cell line COLO 205 is normally resistant to TNF-alpha - a death inducing ligand. However, co-incubation TNF-alpha with Cycloheximide caused time-dependent cell death. In fact, authors found that Cycloheximide sensitizes cells to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis (Pajak et al, 2005).

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Cycloheximide is widely used in biomedical research to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells studied in vitro. It inhibits the synthesis of proteins and macromolecules, and affects apoptosis in eukaryotes.

    Cycloheximide Solution (C084) was used to study transcription factors (LMX1A and LMX1B) in the adult midbrain, contributing to our understanding of dopaminergic neuronal (mDAN) decline in Parkinson’s disease (Jimenez-Moreno et al, 2019).

    Microbiology Applications

    Media Supplements

    Cycoloheximide is routinely used as a selection agent in several types of isolation media:

    Columbia Blood AgarCampylobacter selective supplement (Butzler)

    Dermasel agar - Selective supplement for dermatophyte fungi

    Campylobacter Agar - Campylobacter Selective Supplement (Preston)

    Listeria Selective Agar - Listeria Selective Supplement

    Listeria Enrichemnt Broth - Listeria Selective Enrichment Supplement

    Listeria Enrichment Broth - Modified Listeria Selective Enrichemnt Supplement

    STAA Agar - STAA Selective Supplement

    Legionella CYE Agar - Legionella GVPC Selective Supplement

    Campylobacter Agar - Campylobacter Selective Supplement (Karmali)

    Bolton Broth - Bolton Broth Selective Supplement

     Representative susceptibility data includes:

    •  Candida albicans: 12.5 µg/ml
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: 0.2 µg/ml
    • Mycosphaerella graminicola: 5.62-100 µg/ml

     For additional Cycloheximide MIC data, please review our Antimicrobial Index.

    Plant Biology Applications

    Cycloheximide is a commonly used lab reagent used in in vitro applications to inhibit fungal growth by targeting protein synthesis. In yeast, concentrations of 200 uM have fungicidal effects (Schneider-Poetsch et al, 2009). The compound can be used as a plant growth regulator to stimulate ethylene production in leaves and fruit.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White or cream-colored powder

    Source

    Streptomyces griseus

    Potency (on a dry basis)

    ≥900 u/mg (on dried basis)

    Loss on Drying

    ≤ 1.0%

References

    References

    Baliga BS, Pronczuk AW and Munro HN (1969) Mechanism of cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis in a cell-free system prepared from rat liver. J Biol Chem. 244(16):4480-4489 PMID 5806588

    Doyle SM, Diamond M and McCabe PF (2010) Chloroplast and reactive oxygen species involvement in apoptotic-like programmed cell death in Arabidopsis suspension cultures. J. Exper. Bot 61 (2):473–482 PMID 19933317

    Lee S et al (2012) Global mapping of translation initiation sites in mammalian cells at single-nucleotide resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109(37):E2424-32 PMID 22927429

    Neeman M and Degani H (1989) Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: 31P and 13C NMR studies. PNAS 86 (14):5585-5589 PMID 2748604

    Pajak B, Gajkowska B, Orzechowski A (2005) Cycloheximide-mediated sensitization to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell line COLO 205; role of FLIP and metabolic inhibitors. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.56 (3)101-118. PMID 16077198

    Schneider-Poetsch T et al (2009) Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by cycloheximide and lactimidomycin. Nat. Chem. Biol 6: 209-217 PMID 20118940

    References for Cycloheximide from TOKU-E:

    Jimenez-Moreno N et al (2019)  LIR-dependent LMX1A/LMX1B autophagy crosstalk shapes human midbrain dopaminergic neuronal resilience. bioRxiv 636712 link

    Buchanan BW, Lloyd ME,  Engle SM, and Rubenstein EM (2016)  Cycloheximide chase analysis of protein degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJ. Vis. Exp. (110), e53975

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