Oligomycin B is a minor analog of a class of macrocyclic lactones isolated from selected strains of Streptomyces spp. It is a non-selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase in eukaryotes. Oligomycins exhibit apoptotic cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity. It can induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types. It is practically free of homologs. Oligomycin B has the base structure of Oligomycin A but the spirocyclic ring with the 2-hydroxypropyl has been substituted by an oxo group.
Oligomycin is a macrolide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces. It is an inhibitor of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase. The Oligomycin complex was first reported in 1954, from a strain of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes from soil highly active against fungi. The Oligomycin class includes the analogs/isomers A through G. Different isomers are highly specific for the disruption of mitochondrial metabolism. Oligomycin can be used to study the mechanistic aspects of ATP formation in tumor cell biology and apoptosis.
Oligomycin B is soluble in ethanol, methanol, DMSO and DMF. Practically insoluble in water.
Additional Oligomycin products can be found here.
|Mechanism of Action||
Oligomycin inhibits phosphoryl group transfer in mitochondrial membrane-bound ATP synthase (F1F0 ATPase), blocking proton translocation and leading to hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane. The result is that mitochondrial ATP is not synthesized, as this enzyme is responsible for ATP production in mammals via a rotary catalytic mechanism.
After more than 50 years of studies on the binding site of Oligomycin, a team at the Rosalind Franklin University (North Chicago, IL) discovered that it binds to the subunit-c of the F0 portion of the ATP synthase. The residues involved in the binding site are conserved from yeast to humans (Symersky et al, 2012).
|Spectrum||Oligomycin is active against Rhodotorula gultinis, Aspergillus niger and other molds.|
|Microbiology Applications||A number of mutations in yeast have been shown to confer resistance to Oligomycin.|
|Plant Biology Applications||Oligomycin B can impair motility and induce lysis of grapevine downy mildew zoospores (Plasmopara viticola) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 of 0.15 µg/ml (Dame et al, 2016).|
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||Oligomycin is used to study ATP-linked respiration and for the maximal capacity respiration assay in astrocytes, at 1µM for MEF’s and 2µM for astrocytes. It can be used to measure oxygen consumption in commercial kits such as the Mito Stress Test Kit (Agilent). The compound is serially injected to measure ATP-linked respiration. The test can help quantify parameters of mitochondrial respiration and identify mitochondrial dysfunction (Atzmon et al, 2018).|
Mitochondria are regulators in apotosis, thus are a target for cancer research. Oligomycin was found to bypass doxorubicin resistance and block P-glycoprotein activity. P-glycoprotein causes multidrug resistance, and extrudes anticancer drugs to the extracellular environment using ATP. The result was that it triggered apoptosis in drug-resistant HepG2 cells (Li et al, 2002).
Oligomycin can be used to measure oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rates in breast cancer cell lines, contributing to our understanding of molecular pathways that contribute to breast cancer progression (Furth et al, 2018).
|Solubility||Oligomycin B is soluble in ethanol, methanol, DMF or DMSO. Poor water solubility.|
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