Spectinomycin Sulfate is an aminocyclitol antibiotic that is isolated from Streptomyces spectabilis. Spectinomycin was discovered in culture broth by researchers at the Upjohn Company in 1961. Spectinomycin Sulfate shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Mycoplasma.
Spectinomycin Sulfate is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It acts by inhibiting protein synthesis and elongation by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit and interfering with peptidyl tRNA translocation. This eventually leads to bacterial cell death.
Spectinomycin is commonly used as a selective agent to isolate cells that contain aadA spectinomycin resistance genes. It also has various uses in plant biology applications.
Spectinomycin Sulfate is sparingly soluble in aqueous solution.
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|Mechanism of Action||The aminocyclitol antibiotic Spectinomycin, often considered alongside the aminoglycosides, binds in reversible fashion (hence the bacteriostatic activity) to the 16S rRNA of the ribosomal 30S subunit. There it interrupts the translocation event that occurs as the next codon of mRNA is aligned with the A site in readiness for the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA. Structural studies reveal that the antibiotic binds to an area of the 30S subunit known as the head region which needs to move during translocation. Binding of the rigid Spectinomycin molecule appears to prevent the movement required for translocation.|
|Spectrum||Spectinomycin Sulfate is an antibiotic that is active against a variety of aerobic Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms as well as Mycoplasma species. Spectinomycin is used clinically, primarily for its activity against Gram-negative organisms; some Gram-positive organisms may also be susceptible to this agent. Anaerobic organisms are generally resistant. Spectinomycin is usually bacteriostatic at therapeutic doses.|
|Microbiology Applications||Spectinomycin Sulfate is commonly as a selective agent to isolate cells that contain aadA spectinomycin resistance genes. Spectinomycin sulfate is typically used at concentrations between 50 - 100 µg/mL.|
|Plant Biology Applications||Spectinomycin Sulfate has been use to mark cell layers to monitor cell fate during leaf development, as a selection marker in plant related transformation systems for plant cells containing the marker gene Spcr, and to generate plants deficient for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase on MS-agar media.|
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||Spectinomycin Sulfate is suitable for cell culture applications. For cell culture use, it is recommended to be used at a concentraiton of 7.5-20 mg/L.|
Thompson PR, Hughes DW, Cianciotto NP, Wright GD (1998) Spectinomycin kinase from Legionella pneumophila. Characterization of substrate specificity and identification of catalytically important residues J. Biol. Chem. 273 (24): 14788-14795. PMID: 9614079
Zimmerman JM, Maher JL 3rd (2002) In vivo selection of spectinomycin-binding RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 30: 5425-5435. PMID: 12490711
Davis BD (1987) Mechanism of bactericidal action of aminoglycosides. Microbiol. Rev. 51(3):341-350 PMID 3312985
Chopra I (2010) Modes of action, antibiotic and themotherapy. Ch. 2. In: Antiibotic and Chemotherapy. Ninth Edition. WB Saunders, Pages 10-23, ISBN 9780702040641
Suter TM, Viswanathan VK, Cianciotto NP (1997) Isolation of a gene encoding a novel spectinomycin phosphotransferase from Legionella pneumophila. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41(6):1385-1388. PMID 9174205
|MIC||Borrelia afzelii | 0.25 － 1|| Borrelia bissettii | 2|| Borrelia burgdorferi| 0.25 － 2|| Borrelia garinii| 0.25 － 0.5|| Borrelia valaisiana| 2|| Chlamydia psittaci| ≥0.3 - 10000|| Chlamydia trachomatis| ≥0.8|| Diplococcus pneumoniae| 6.3 － 25|| Escherichia coli| 0.5 － >512|| Haemophilus influenzae| 3.1 － 12.5|| Haemophilus parasuis| 4 － 128|| Lactobacillus reuteri| 2500|| Mycoplasma bovis | 0.12 － 8|| Mycoplasma gallisepticum| 0.39 － 1|| Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae| ≤0.12 － 2|| Mycoplasma hyosynoviae| ≥4|| Mycoplasma synoviae | 0.39 － 6.25|| Neisseria gonorrhoeae | 1 － 32|| Neisseria spp.| 4 － 64|| Nocardia asteroides| 6.3 － ≥800|| Pasteurella haemolytica| ≥32|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa| 32 － 256|| Salmonella typhimurium (LT2)| ≥32|||