• Nitrofurantoin packaged and labeled.

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SKU: N006

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Description

Nitrofurantoin is broad-spectrum nitrofuran antibiotic that is used as a substrate of bacterial glycoprotein nitrofuran reductase. It is bacteriostatic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  It has been found to have in vitro anti-cancer activities in bladder cancer cells.  Nitrofurantoin is soluble in DMF.  It is practically insoluble in aqueous solution.     

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  • Nitrofurantoin Sodium (N061)

    CAS Number

    67-20-9

    Molecular Formula

    C8H6N4O5

    Molecular Weight

    238.16

    Mechanism of Action

    Nitrofurantoin has a unique mode of action in that it does not require growth or active metabolism to exert its effect. Upon entering a susceptible cell, nitrofurantoin is activated by bacterial enzymes (nitrofuran reductase) and targets ribosomes and nucleic acids which inhibit bacterial growth and leads to death of the bacterial cells. Resistance to Nitrofurantoin may be chromosomal or plasmid-mediated.

    Storage Conditions

    Ambient. Protect from light.

    Tariff Code

    2934.99.4700

    Spectrum

    Nitrofurantoin is a broad spectrum antibiotic frequently used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Nitrofurantoin has been found to be effective against certain β-lactam resistant strains of VRE or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; a glycopeptide antibiotic resistant "superbug."
    It is also used agasint Enterococci, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corneybacteria, and  E. coli.  Most strains of Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeurginosa are resistant to Nitrofurantoin.

Applications

    Application

    Nitrofurantoin can be used to study antibiotic resistance.

    Cancer Applications

    Nitrofurantoin was evaluated for its cytotoxic activity against bladder cancer cells using three transitional cell carcinoma lines (HTB9 (grade 2); T24 (gr 3) and TccSup (gr. 4) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 ug/ml.   MTT assay.  Significant, dose-dependent cytotoxicity was seen at 7.8 ug/ml conc. in all 3 cell lines.  (Kamat and Lamm, 2004).

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Nitrofuranton is toxic to human WI-38 fibroblasts in culture. and antioxidants can mitigate effect. On a molecular basis, glutathione peroxidase was the most efficient at protection (Michiels and Remacle, 1988).

    Nitrofurantoin can alter the morphology, viability, and phagocytic activity of bovine mammary polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, when added at 1 mg/ml. (Nickerson et al, 1995).

    Microbiology Applications

    Nitrofurantoin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options.  Representative MIC values include:

    • E. coli 32 µg/mL - 64 µg/mL
    • For a representative list of nNtrofurantoin MIC values, click here.

    Nitrofurantoincan be used against Lysteria monocytogenes-persisters in vitro, and was effective against both growing and dormant cells (Knudsen et al, 2013). 

     In general, organisms are said to be susceptibile if the MIC is 32 ug/ml or less. The activity of this compound is pH dependent, and mean MIC rises sharply with pH >6.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    Yellow crystalline powder

    Source

    Synthetic

    Impurity Profile

    Limit of Nitrofurfural Diacetate: ≤ 1.0%
    Limit of Nitrofurazone: ≤ 0.01%

    Water Content (Karl Fischer)

    < 1.0%

    Assay

    (On dried basis): 98.0-102.0%

References

    References

    Fitzpatrick PM and Charles C. McOsker CM (1994)  Nitrofurantoin: Mechanism of action and implications for resistance development in common uropathogens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33(Suppl A):23-30  PMID 7928834

    Kamat AM ad Lamm DL (2004)  Antitumor activity of common antibiotics against superficial bladder cancer. Urol. 63(3):457-460 PMID 15028437

    Knudsen GM, Ng Y and Gram L (2013)  Survival of bactericidal antibiotic treatment by a persister subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes. App. Environ. Microbiol. 79(23):7390-7397  PMID 24056460

    Michiels C and Remacle J (1988)  Quantitative study of natural antioxidant systems for cellular nitrofurantoin toxicity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 967(3):341-347  PMID 3196753

    Nickerson SC, Paape MJ, Dulin AM (1985)  Effect of antibiotics and vehicles on bovine mammary polymorphonuclear leukocyte morphologic features, viability, and phagocytic activity in vitro. Am J Vet Res. 46(11):2259-2265  PMID 4073636

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