• Amoxicillin sodium salt packaged and labeled.

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SKU: A059

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Description

Amoxicillin is an extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotic and is similar in structure to Ampicillin. Resistance to amoxicillin can be attributed to β-lactamase enzymes secreted by a resistant cell.

TOKU-E offers three forms of Amoxicillin: 

Both Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin Sodium have similar potencies but Amoxicillin Sodium is freely soluble in aqueous solution (50 mg/ml) compared to Amoxicillin which is sparingly soluble (3.4 mg/ml).

    CAS Number

    34642-77-8

    Molecular Formula

    C16H18N3NaO5S

    Molecular Weight

    387.39

    Mechanism of Action

    Like all β-lactams, Amoxicillin targets PBP’s (penicillin binding proteins) involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised ultimately leading to the death of the cell.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8°C

    Tariff Code

    2941.10.5000

    Spectrum

    Amoxicillin targets a wide range of β-lactamase negative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli and a number of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Because peptidoglycan is synthesized in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Amoxicillin can be used against a wide variety of species.

Applications

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Dendritic cells were incubated with supernatant from Amoxicillin-treated hepatocytes in vitro to characterize drug-specific signaling pathways between hepatocytes and immune cells to study the compound's influence on the immune response (Ogese, 2017).

    Microbiology Applications

    Amoxicillin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3 µg/mL - 32 µg/mL
    • Haemophilus influenzae 0.125 µg/mL - >64 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of amoxicillin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White or almost white crystalline powder

    Source

    Semi-synthetic

    Water Content (Karl Fischer)

    ≤3.0%

    pH

    8.0-10.0

    Optical Rotation

    +240° to +290°

    Assay

    (Dried Basis): ≥80.0%

    Impurities

    Related Substances
    Amoxicillin dimer: ≤3.0%
    Any impurity: ≤3.0%
    Sum of impurities: ≤9.0%
    2-Ethyl hexanoic acid: ≤1.0%

    Residual Solvents

    Ethanol: Not more than 0.5%
    Methyl acetate: Not more than 0.5%

References

    References

    Ogese MO (2017) Characterization of Drug-Specific Signaling Between Primary Human Hepatocytes and Immune Cells. Toxicol Sci. 158(1):76-89 PMID 28444390

    Pitout JD, Sanders CC, Sanders WE (1997) Antimicrobial resistance with focus on beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Am J Med 103(1):51-59. PMID 9236486

    Worlitzch D et al (2001) Effects of amoxicillin, gentamicin, and moxifloxacin on the hemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45(1):196-202 PMID 11120965

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