Polymyxin B sulfate is a polypeptide antibiotic and is composed of polymyxins B1, B2, and B3 with fractions B1 and B2 comprising the majority of the mixture. Polymyxin B sulfate is freely soluble in aqueous solution (25 mg/mL). Polymyxin B components are structurally identical with the exception of a variable fatty acid group on each fraction. Results from in vitro studies have shown marginal differences in MIC data when comparing the fractions.
TOKU-E offers six forms of polymyxin B sulfate: polymyxin B sulfate (P007), polymyxin B1 sulfate, EvoPure® (P037), polymyxin B1-I sulfate, EvoPure® (P038), polymyxin B2 sulfate, EvoPure® (P039), polymyxin B3 sulfate, EvoPure® (P040), and polymyxin B6 sulfate, EvoPure®. EvoPure® products are purified single antibiotic fractions, most >99% pure. High purity EvoPure® polymyxin products can be used to analyze the specifc effects of individual polymyxin B fractions.
|Mechanism of Action||Polymyxin B targets and alters the permeability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in Gram negative bacteria leading to lysing of the cell. Polymyxin B only needs to interact with LPS, it is not required to enter the cell.|
|Spectrum||Polymyxin B sulfate targets the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa.|
|Impurity Profile||Polymyxin B1||4135-11-9|C56H98N16O13|1204| Polymyxin B2|||C55H96N16O13|1190| Polymyxin B3|||C55H96N16O13|1190| Polymyxin B1-I|||C56H98N16O13|1204||
|Microbiology Applications||Polymyxin B sulfate is commonly used in clinical in vitromicrobiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include: |
Polymyxin B is routinely used as a selection agent in several types of isolation media:
Perfringens agar - Supplement A and Supplement B
Perfringens Agar - SFP and TSC selective supplements
Columbia Blood Agar - Campylobacter selective supplement (Skirrow)
Columbia Blood Agar - Campylobacter selective supplement (Blaser-Wang)
MYP Agar - Polymyxin B Bacillus selection supplement
Legionella CYE Agar - Legionella BMPA-α Selective Supplement
Legionella CYE Agar - Legionella MWY Selective Supplement
Campylobacter Agar - Campylobacter Selective Supplement (Preston)
PALCAM Agar - PALCAM Selective Supplement
Legionella CYE Agar - Legionella GVPC Selective Supplement
m-CP Medium - Membrane C. perfringens Selective Supplement
Burkholderia cepacia Agar Base - Burkholderia cepacia Selective Supplement
ORSAB - ORSAB Selective Supplement
Campylobacter Agar Base - Modified Preston Campylobacter Selective Supplement
Brucella Medium Base - Modified Brucella Selective Supplement
Legionella CYE Agar - Legionella GVPN Selective Supplement
ChromogenicListeria Agar - Chromogenic Listeria Selective Supplement
ChromogenicBacillus cereus Agar - Chromogenic Bacillus cereus Selective Supplement
ChromogenicListeria Agar - Chromogenic Listeria Differential Supplement
|Plant Biology Applications||Polymyxin B sulfate was successfully tested to counteract phytopathogenic gram-negative bacterial growth including different strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia carotovora. Polymixin B sulfate was shown to reduce bacterial growth of different strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava at low concentrations, (0.08 µg/ml) and Erwinia carotovora growth at slightly higher concentrations (0.25 µg/ml) (Selim et al. 2005). Polymyxin B has been shown to elict alkaloid accumulation in E. californica. Treatment at 0.04 mg/ml for 4 hours showed a 5.5 times increase in Jasmonate levels over the control (water).|
Newton, B. A. "The Properties and Mode of Action of the Polymyxins." Bacteriology Reviews (n.d.): 14-27. www.ncbi.gov. Web. 21 Aug. 2012.
Selim S., Negrel J., Govaerts C., Gianinazzi S. and Tuinen van D., 2005, Isolation and Partial Characterization of Antagonistic Peptides Produced by Paenibacillus sp. Strain B2 Isolated from the Sorghum Mycorrhizosphere. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Nov. 2005, p. 6501–6507
Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn et al. "Polymyxin B for the Treatment of Multidrug-resistant Pathogens: A Critical Review." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 60 (2007): 1206-215.Oxfordjournals. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.
Li, Jian et al. "Development and Validation of a Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Assay for Polymyxin B in Human Plasma." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2009): n. pag. Oxfordjournals. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.
Tam, Vincent H, et al. "In Vitro Potency of Various Polymyxin B Components." In Vitro Potency of Various Polymyxin B Components 55.9 (2011): 4490-491. Asm.org. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.
Orwa, J. A., et al "Isolation and Structural Characterization of Polymyxin B Components." Isolation and Structural Characterization of Polymyxin B Components 912.2 (2001): 369-73. Sciencedirect. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.
MJ Mueller, W Brodschelm. "Signaling in the elicitation process is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway leading to jasmonic acid". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 90, pp. 7490-7494, August 1993.
|MIC||Diplococcus pneumoniae| ≥400|| Fusobacterium necrophorum| 8.1 － 100|| Haemophilus influenzae| ≥0.8|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa| 0.25 － 1|||