Amygdalin (Vitamin B17) is a cyanide-containing diglucoside derived from bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) and apricot pits and is structurally related to Vitamin B17. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor to Amygdalin. In the 1950s, Amygdalin was a proposed anti-cancer agent; however, because of its cytotoxic properties, its use is highly avoided. It may be used as a substrate to characterize enzymes such as maltase(s), emulsin(s), and β-glucosidase(s). Amygdalin is freely soluble in water.
|Mechanism of Action||Amygdalin is metabolized in the gut by β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) enzyme with hydrogen cyanide (along with benzaldehyde and glucose) as a byproduct. Some of the hydrogen cyanide produced can be cytotoxic to tumor cells.|
|Cancer Applications||Amygdalin can be used to study cytotoxic effects of cyanide on cancer cells.|
Milazzo S, Horneber M (2015) Laetrile treatment for cancer. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. Apr 28;2015(4):CD005476 PMID 25918920
The localization of Prunasin Hydrolase (PH) proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, as determined from tissue and cellular localization of PH.