SKU: A070  / 
    CAS Number: 39831-55-5

    Amikacin Sulfate, USP (1:1.8)

    $70.18 - $225.02

    Amikacin Sulfate is broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from its counterpart, Kanamycin A. Amikacin Sulfate (A070) contains an Amikacin:Sulfate ratio of 1:1.8.

    TOKU-E offers three forms of Amikacin:

    All forms have similar potencies and are freely soluble in water (50 mg/mL).

    Amikacin Sulfate is used in the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacteria.  It can be used to study bacterial translation and drug resistance.

    Mechanism of ActionAmikacin Sulfate binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit (specifically the 16S rRNA and S12 protein) resulting in interference with the translational initiation complex and mRNA misreading, which leads to a faulty or nonexistent protein.
    SpectrumGram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also susceptible to Amikacin.
    Impurity ProfileImpurity A| 4-O-(3-amino-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-N-[(2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutanoyl]-2-deoxy-L-streptamine|||| Impurity B| 4-O-(3-amino-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,3-N-bis[(2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutanoyl]-2-deoxy-L-streptamine|||| Impurity C| 4-O-(6-amino-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-[3-[[(2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl]-2-deoxy-L-streptamine|||| Impurity D| kanamycin|59-01-8|C18H36N4O11|484.499|
    Microbiology ApplicationsAmikacin sulfate is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use this information to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Samples of microbes grown in presence of a 30 µg Amikacin disc with a zone of inhibition of <14 mm in diameter are considered resistant. Intermediate resistance zones of inhibition are typically 15 mm-16 mm in diameter (1). Representative MIC values include:

    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.25 µg/mL -512 µg/mL
    • Serratia marcescens ≤0.25 µg/mL - >32 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of Amikacin MIC values, click here.
    Eukaryotic Cell Culture ApplicationsIn vitro studies with Amikacin demonstrate lysosomal phospholipidosis, with the compound binding to the phospholipid bilayer.
    Molecular FormulaC22H43N5O13 •1.8H2SO4
    References

    Christophe T et al (2009) High content screening identifies decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2’ epimerase as a target for intracellular antimycobacterial inhibitors. PLoS Pathog. 5(10): e10000645. PMID 19876393

    Davis, BD (1987) Mechanism of Bactericidal Action of Aminoglycosides. Microbiol Rev 51 (3 ): 341-50 PMID 3312985

    Dudek M, Romanowska J, Witula T, Trylska J (2014) Interactions of amikacin with the RNA model of the ribosomal A-site: Computational, spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. Biochimie 102:188-202. PMID 24769038

    Laurent G, Carlier MB, Rollman B, Van Hoof F, Tulkens P (1982) Mechanism of aminoglycoside-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis: in vitro and in vivo studies with Gentamicin and Amikacin. Biochem. Pharmacol 31(23):3861-70. PMID 7159463

    Singh R, Ray P, Das A, Sharma MJ (2009) Role of persisters and small-colony variants in antibiotic resistance of planktonic and biofilm-associated Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study. Med. Microbiol 58(8):1067-1073. PMID 1952816

    MICBacillus subtilis| <100|| Borrelia burgdorferi S.L.| 32 - >128|| Brucella| 1 - 4|| Burkholderia cepacia| 32 - >64|| Candida albicans| <100|| Citrobacter amalonaticus| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter braakii| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter diversus| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter farmeri| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter freundii| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter koseri| ≤0.25 - 32|| Citrobacter spp.| ≤0.25 - 32|| Diplococcus pneumoniae| 50 - 200|| Enterobacter aerogenes| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter agglomerans| 1 - 8|| Enterobacter amnigenus| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter asburiae| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter cancerogenus| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter cloacae| ≤0.25 - >128|| Enterobacter cloacae (4073)| 1|| Enterobacter cloacae (5420)| 1|| Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 3047)| 4|| Enterobacter gergoviae| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter hormaechei| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter intermedius| 0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter sakazakii| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter spp.| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacter taylorae| ≤0.25 - >32|| Enterobacteriaceae| 0.03 - 128|| Enterococcus faecalis| 128|| Erwinia carotovora| <100|| Escherichia coli| ≤0.25 - 64|| Escherichia coli (5401)| 2|| Escherichia coli (5411)| 8|| Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 + aminoglycoside-susceptible)| 1|| Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922)| 3.9 - 64|| Escherichia coli (ESBL)| <0.25 - 128|| Escherichia coli (JM83 + AAC6'/APH2'')| 8|| Escherichia coli (JM83 + APH(3')-I)| 1|| Escherichia coli (JM83)| 1|| Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418)| 0.5|| Escherichia coli (non-ESBL)| ≤0.5 - 16|| Escherichia coli (non-ESBL)| 2 - 4|| Escherichia coli (SHV-producing)| <0.25 - 8|| Haemolytic streptococci| 1 - 128|| Haemophilus influenzae| 1.6 - 6.3|| Haemophilus spp.| 0.12 - 16|| Klebsiella ornithinolytica| ≤0.25 - >32|| Klebsiella ozaenae| ≤0.25 - >32|| Klebsiella pneumonia| ≤0.25 - >64|| Klebsiella pneumonia (5427)| 2|| Klebsiella pneumonia (5436)| 1|| Klebsiella pneumonia (ESBL)| ≤0.5 - >256|| Klebsiella pneumonia (non-ESBL)| ≤0.5 - 32|| Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883 + aminoglycoside-susceptible)| 1|| Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 33018)| 128|| Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603 + ampicillin-resistant)| 0.5 - 1|| Klebsiella spp.| ≤0.25 - >32|| Klebsiella spp. (ESBL)| ≤0.25 - >32|| Klebsiella terrigena| ≤0.25 - >32|| Morganella morganii| ≤1 - 8|| Morganella morganii (indole-positive)| 0.5 - 32|| Morganella spp.| ≤0.5 - 32|| Mycobacterium chelonae| 32|| Mycobacterium marinum| 0.5 - 8|| Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BACTEC 460 + H37Ra)| 2.5|| Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BACTEC 460 + H37Ragfp)| 2.5|| Mycobacterium tuberculosis (GFPMA H37Ragfp)| 2.5|| Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra)| 20|| Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv)| 0.5 - 20|| Neisseria spp.| 0.5 - 16|| Nocardia brasiliensis| 0.125 - 4|| Pandoraea apista| 16|| Pandoraea genomo| >64|| Pandoraea pnomenusa| >64|| Pasteurella multocida| 2 - 32|| Pasteurella multocida| <4|| Plesiomonas shigelloides| 2 - 32|| Pneumococci| 1 - 128|| Proteae spp. (indole-positive)| ≤0.25 - >32|| Proteus mirabilis| 0.5 - >32|| Proteus mirabilis| 1 - 8|| Proteus mirabilis| ≤1 - 8|| Proteus mirabilis (ESBL)| ≤0.5 - >256|| Proteus rettgeri (indole-positive)| 0.5 - 32|| Proteus vulgaris (indole-positive)| 0.5 - 32|| Providencia alcalifaciens (indole-positive)| 0.5 - 32|| Providencia spp.| ≤0.5 - 32|| Providencia stuartii (indole-positive)| 0.5 - 32|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa| ≤0.25 - 512|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1019)| 4|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1037)| 2|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (66)| 4|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (956)| 16|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 + aminoglycoside-resistant)| 32 - 64|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)| 1.9 - 2|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C43)| 32|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ciprofloxacin-resistant)| 16|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ciprofloxacin-susceptible)| 3|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (clinical isolate)| ≤1 - >64|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662)| 2|| Pseudomonas cepacia| >128|| Pseudomonas spp.| 0.06 - 128|| Salmonella (group B)| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella (group C)| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella (group D)| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella agona| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella arizonae| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella bareilly| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella enterica| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella enteritidis| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella hadar| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella heidelberg| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella infantis| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella litchfield| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella Montevideo| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella muenchen| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella Newport| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella panama| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella Paratyphi| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella schwarzengrund| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella spp.| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella stanley| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella stpaul| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella thompson| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella typhi| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella typhimurium| ≤0.25 - 16|| Salmonella virchow| ≤0.25 - 16|| Serratia fonticola| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia liquefaciens| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia marcescens| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia marcescens (ATCC 13880)| 8|| Serratia marcescens (SM-1178 + multidrug-resistant)| 32|| Serratia odorifera| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia plymuthica| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia rubidaea| ≤0.25 - >32|| Serratia spp.| ≤0.25 - >32|| Shigella boydii| 2 - 8|| Shigella dysenteriae| 2 - 8|| Shigella dysenteriae (SD-5 + multidrug-resistant)| 2 - ?|| Shigella flexneri| 0.5 - 16|| Shigella sonnei| 0.5 - 16|| Shigella spp.| 2 - 8|| Shingella dysenteriae| 0.5 - 16|| Staphylococci| 0.008 - 128|| Staphylococcus aureus| 2 - <100|| Staphylococcus aureus (1010 + methicillin-resistant)| 8|| Staphylococcus aureus (3)| <1|| Staphylococcus aureus (31593)| 1|| Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 + aminoglycoside-susceptible)| 1|| Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213)| 1 - 2|| Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33591 + methicillin-resistant)| 8 - 16|| Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571)| 1|| Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant)| 0.5 - 32|| Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible)| 0.25 - 8|| Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-resistant)| 0.5 - 32|| Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible)| 0.25 - 8|| Staphylococcus haemolyticus (methicillin-resistant)| 0.25 - 32|| Staphylococcus intermedius (ATCC 29663)| 2|| Staphylococcus saprophyticus (methicillin-susceptible)| 0.25 - 8|| Stenotrophomonas maltophilia| 0.5 - >272|| Streptococcus faecalis| >64|| Xanthomonas campestris| <100|| Xanthomonas maltophilia| 48|| Yersinia enterocolitica| 2 - 32||