• Verruculogen packaged and labeled in glass vial.

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SKU: V019

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Verruculogen is a tremorgenic mycotoxin, first isolated from Penicillium verruculosum in 1972. The structure was resolved as an indole alkaloid in 1974. Verruculogen is produced by several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus and its presence is a useful taxonomic phenotypic marker. The tremorgenic action of verruculogen is associated with increases in spontaneous glutamate and aspartate release, decreases in GABA levels and, at toxic doses, an increase in the number and decrease in the affinity of DHP receptors in rat cortex. In in vitro guinea pig ileum preparations, verruculogen causes an increase in contractile responses due to electrical field stimulation, attributed to enhancement of acetylcholine from presynaptic nerve terminals.

Verruculogen is soluble in ethanol, methanol, DMF and DMSO.

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    Mechanism of Action

    Verruculogen also inhibits Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and is a cell cycle inhibitor blocking division at the M phase.

    Storage Conditions




    White solid



    Tremorgenic toxin from Penicillium veruculosum. Cole R.J., et al. Appl. Microbiol. 1972, 24, 248.

    The strucuture of verruculogen. A tremor producing epoxide from Penicillium verruculosum. Fayos J. et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1974, 96, 6785.

    Actions of tremorgenic fungal toxins on neurotransmitter release. Norris P.J. et al. , J. Neurochem. 1980, 34, 33.

    Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Knaus H.H. et al. , Biochemistry 1994, 33, 5819.

    Novel mammalian cell cycle inhibitors, tryprostatins A, B and other diketopiperazines produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. II. Physico-chemical properties and structures. Cui C.B. et al. , J. Antibiot. 1996, 49, 534. 

    In vitro effects of tremorgenic mycotoxins. Selala M.I. et al. , J. Nat. Prod. 1991, 54, 207.

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