Amphotericin B, USP is a polyene antifungal or antimycotic compound derived from Streptomyces nodosus. Amphotericin B is nearly insoluble in water but can be solubilized in sodium deoxycholate.
Amphotericin B, USP meets United States Pharmacopoeia specifications.
Mechanism of Action
Amphotericin B associates with membrane sterols in mammalian and fungal cell membranes. Amphotericin B forms a pore in these membranes leading to essential ion leakage and ultimately, cell death.
Amphotericin B is active against mammalian and fungal (molds and yeasts) cells. Amphotericin B is not toxic to bacteria due to their lack of sterols.
The following represents MIC susceptibility data for amphotericin B against common fungal pathogens:
- Candida albicans - 0.001 - 321 μg/mL
- Candida krusei - 0.001 - 16 μg/mL
- Coccidioides immitis - 0.0625 - 2 μg/mL
- Cryptococcus neoformans - 0.2 - 39 μg/mL
- Fusarium oxysporum - 0.75 - 125 μg/mL
Amphotericin B is used as an antimycotic selective agent in several routinely used selective media formulations to inhibit the growth of background fungal growth.
Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications
Amphotericin B can be used in eukaryotic cell culture to control or prevent fungal contamination. Amphotericin B can be toxic to cell lines at high concentrations and should not be used at concentrations greater than 2.50 µg/mL.
Rice, Louis B., and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum. "Antifungal Agents: Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, and Correlation of These Mechanisms with Bacterial Resistance." Clinical Microbiology Reviews (1999): 501-17. www.ncbi.gov. Oct. 1999. Web. 22 Aug. 2012.
Rice L.B. and Ghannoum M.A.. "Antifungal Agents: Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, and Correlation of These Mechanisms with Bacterial Resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews (1999): 501-17.
Brajtburg, J., W. G. Powderly, and G. Medoff. "Amphotericin B: Current Understanding of Mechanisms of Action." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 34.2 (1990): 183-88. www.ncbi.gov. Web. 22 Aug. 2012.
Perez-de-Luque A., Cifuentes Z., Beckstead J.A., Sillero J.C., Avila C., Rubio J. and Ryan R.O.. Effect of amphotericin B nanodisks on plant fungal diseases. Volume 68, Issue 1, Article first published online: 24 Jun 2011.
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