• Salinomycin sodium packaged and labeled.

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SKU: S002

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Description

Salinomycin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus that has been widely used as an agricultural antibiotic to prevent coccidiosis in poultry. Salinomycin was first isolated in 1974 by the research division of Kaken Chemical Co. in Tokyo Japan.

Salinomycin sodium effect the cell mambrane permeability by increasing cation movement across cell membranes through exchange-diffusion, resulting in altered gradients due to a lack of control of ion permeability. This effect allows ions (K+, Na+, Ca+, Mg2+) to accumulate inside the cell, reaching toxic levels.  Salinomycin is effective against gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, some filamentous fungi, and coccidia.

Salinomycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines and to inhibit multidrug resistance protein 1.

TOKU-E offers two forms of salinomycin: salinomycin (S001) and salinomycin sodium (S002). Salinomycin is slightly soluble in methanol at 10 mg/mL. Salinomycin sodium is insoluble in water, freely soluble in acetone, and 200 mg/mL soluble in ethanol.

This product is considered a dangerous good. Quantities above 1 g may be subject to additional shipping fees. Please contact us for specific questions.

synonyms: Coxistal, Coxistac

Fangyuan Xie et al. used salinomycin from TOKU-E to study its efficacy toward liver cancer cells when used in combination with chloroquine. Read more here: "Codelivery of salinomycin and chloroquine by liposomes enables synergistic antitumor activity in vitro." 

    CAS Number

    55721-31-8

    Molecular Formula

    C42H69NaO11

    Molecular Weight

    772.98 (anhydrous basis)

    Mechanism of Action

    Salinomycin interacts with the gram positive cell membrane which decreases control of ion permeability. This effect allows ions (K+, Na+, Ca+, Mg2+) to accumulate inside the cell to toxic levels.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8┬░C

    Tariff Code

    2941.90.1050

    Spectrum

    Salinomycin targets primarily the gram positive cell wall to allow ion transport into the cell. Gram negative organisms are unaffected by salinomycin because of their additional outer membrane. Salinomycin is also effective against mycobacteria, some filamentous fungi, and coccidia.

Applications

    Cancer Applications

    Salinomycin is a promising anti-cancer agent which selectively targets cancer stem cells. Cancer stems cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within tumors that drive tumor growth and recurrence. They are resistant to many current cancer treatments. Salinomycin sodium shows selective toxicity for the CSCs that exist as a subpopulation within HMLER breast cancer cells.  A salinomycin treatment of 4T1 and MCF-7-Ras breast cancer cell lines results in a reduction of CSCs. Treatment of 5 mg/kg salinomycin in mice implanted with SUM159 human breast cancer cells inhibits mammary tumor growth and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells.

    The mechanism(s) for the anti-cancer properties of Salinomycin are still unclear, activation of unconventional pathways of cell death, enhanced DNA damage, and inhibition of Wnt signaling pathway, appear to be plausible mechanisms for the multi-dimensional anti-CSC and anti-tumorigenic activities of salinomycin.  Salinomycin was shown to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells and overcomes apoptosis resistance through a pathway independent of activation of p53, caspase, CD95/CD95L system, and the proteasome. Kim et al. demonstrated that combined administration of salinomycin with doxorubicin or etoposide led to increased DNA damage and resulted in massive apoptosis in drug resistant cancer cells.  Salinomycin inhibits CD44 expression in breast cancer cells in vitro.

    TOKU-E salinomycin sodium was used in a study by Zhirong Gong et al. : Codelivery of salinomycin and doxorubicin using nanoliposomes for targeting both liver cancer cells and cancer stem cells

    Microbiology Applications

    Salinomycin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram positive microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Clostridium perfringins 0.12 µg/mL – 0.25 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of salinomycin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White crystalline powder

    Source

    Streptomyces albus

    Impurity Profile

    Arsenic: Not more than 0.0004%
    Elaiophilin: Not more than 0.0032%

    pH

    6.5 - 8.5

    Assay

    (Dried Basis): Not less than 900 u/mg

    Loss on Drying

    Not more than 7.0%

    Heavy Metals

    Not more than 0.002%

References

    References

    Adam Huczynski (2012). "Salinomycin – a New Cancer Drug Candidate". Chemical Biology & Drug Design 79: 235–238.

    Yurkovich, Marie E. et al.; Tyrakis, Petros A.; Hong, Hui; Sun, Yuhui; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Kamiya, Kohei; Leadlay, Peter F. (2011-11-11). "A Late-Stage Intermediate in Salinomycin Biosynthesis Is Revealed by Specific Mutation in the Biosynthetic Gene Cluster". ChemBioChem 13 (1): 66–71.

    Gupta, P. et al.; Onder, Tamer T.; Jiang, Guozhi; Tao, Kai; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Weinberg, Robert A.; Lander, Eric S. (2009-08-13). "Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening". Cell 138 (4): 645–59

    Zhou, Shuang et al. “Salinomycin: a novel anti-cancer agent with known anti-coccidial activities” Current medicinal chemistry vol. 20,33 (2013): 4095-101.

    Kim JH, Chae M, Kim WK, Kim YJ, Kang HS, Kim HS, Yoon S. Salinomycin sensitizes cancer cells to the effects of doxorubicin and etoposide treatment by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 protein. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2011;162:773–784.

    Eameema Muntimadugu, Rajendra Kumar, Shantikumar Saladi, Towseef Amin Rafeeqi, Wahid Khan, "CD44 targeted chemotherapy for co-eradication of breast cancer stem cells and cancer cells using polymeric nanoparticles of salinomycin and paclitaxel", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 143 (2016): 532-546

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