• Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (augmentin) packaged and labeled.

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SKU: A054

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Description

Amoxicillin:Potassium Clavulanate (2:1) is a combination of Amoxicillin (one part) and Potassium Clavulanate (Clavulanic Acid)(two parts) which prevents the degradation of Amoxicillin by β-lactamase enzymes and allows for greater efficacy against β-lactam resistant strains.

Amoxicillin is an extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to Ampicillin.  Resistance to Amoxicillin is due to β-lactamase enzymes secreted by resistant cells.

Potassium Clavulanate (Clavulanic acid), produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus, is a β-lactamase inhibitor which can irreversibly inactivate β-lactamase enzymes of β-lactam resistant microbes.

TOKU-E offers three forms of Amoxicillin: 

Amoxicillin:Potassium Clavulanate (2:1) is soluble in water (300 mg/ml)

    CAS Number

    Mixture

    Mechanism of Action

    Like all β-lactams, Amoxicillin targets PBP’s (penicillin binding proteins) involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised ultimately leading to the death of the cell.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8°C

    Tariff Code

    2941.90.5000

    Spectrum

    Amoxicillin targets a wide range of β-lactamase negative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli and a number of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Because peptidoglycan is synthesized in Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Amoxicillin can be used against a wide variety of microbes. Clavulanate competitively and irreversibly inhibits a wide variety of β-lactamases[ found in bacteria that are resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins.

Applications

    Microbiology Applications

    Amoxicillin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3 µg/mL - 32 µg/mL
    • Haemophilus influenzae 0.125 µg/mL - >64 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of amoxicillin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Appearance

    Off-white or yellow powder

    Water Content (Karl Fischer)

    ≤11.0%

    pH

    4.8-8.6

    Impurities

    Single Impurity: ≤2.0%
    Total Impurities: ≤6.0%

References

    References

    Ball AP, Geddes AM, Davey PG, Farrell ID, Brookes GR (1980) Clavulanic acid and amoxycillin: A clinical, bacteriological, and pharmacological study. Lancet 1(8169):620-623 PMID 6102627

    Fuchs PC, Barry AL, Thornsberry C, Gavan TL and Jones RN (1983) In vitro evaluation of Augmentin by broth microdilutiona and disk diffusion susceptibility testing: regression analysis, tentative interpretive criteria, and quality control limits. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24(1):31-38 PMID 6625554

    Kim SH et al (2015) Characterization of amoxicillin- and clavulanic acid-specific T cells in patients with amoxicillin-clavulanate-induced liver injury. Hepatology 62(3):887-899 PMID 25998949

    Ogese MO (2017) Characterization of Drug-Specific Signaling Between Primary Human Hepatocytes and Immune Cells. Toxicol Sci. 158(1):76-89 PMID 28444390

    Pitout JD, Sanders CC, Sanders WE (1997) Antimicrobial resistance with focus on beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Am J Med 103(1):51-59. PMID 9236486

    Reading C and Cole M (1977) Clavulanic acid: a beta-lactamase-inhibiting beta-lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 11(5):852-857 PMID 879738

    Worlitzch D et al (2001) Effects of amoxicillin, gentamicin, and moxifloxacin on the hemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45(1):196-202 PMID 11120965

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