• Amoxicillin trihydrate packaged and labeled.

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SKU: A004

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Description

Amoxicillin is an extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotic and is similar in structure to ampicillin.  Resistance to Amoxicillin is due to β-lactamase enzymes secreted by a resistant cell.

TOKU-E offers three forms of amoxicillin: amoxicillin trihydrate (A004), amoxicillin sodium salt (A059), and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (A054). In aqueous solution, amoxicillin sodium is freely soluble (50 mg/mL) while amoxicillin is sparingly soluble (3.4 mg/mL).

Both forms have similar potencies and are suitable for microbiology use; however, amoxicillin sodium is easier to work with in aqueous solution. Clavulanate potassium (clavulanic acid) is a β-lactamase inhibitor which can irreversibly inactivate β-lactamase enzymes of β-lactam resistant microbes preventing them from breaking down β-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin can be combined with clavulanate potassium for greater efficacy against β-lactam resistant strains.

    CAS Number

    61336-70-7

    Molecular Formula

    C16H19N3O5S •3H2O

    Molecular Weight

    419.45

    Mechanism of Action

    Like all β-lactams, amoxicillin targets PBP’s (penicillin binding proteins) involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised ultimately leading to the death of the cell.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8°C

    Tariff Code

    2941.10.5000

    Spectrum

    Amoxicillin targets a wide range of β-lactamase negative Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and a number of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Interestingly, amoxicillin has been found to be effective against certain β-lactam sensitive VRE or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; a glycopeptide antibiotic resistant "superbug."

Applications

    Microbiology Applications

    Amoxicillin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram positive and gram negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3 µg/mL - 32 µg/mL
    • Haemophilus influenzae 0.125 µg/mL - >64 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of amoxicillin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White or almost white crystalline powder

    Source

    Semi-synthetic

    Water Content (Karl Fisher)

    11.5%-14.5%

    pH

    3.5 - 6.0

    Assay

    (On Dried Basis): 900-1050 µg/mg

References

    References

    Guzmán, Flavio, MD. "Beta Lactams Antibiotics (penicillins and Cephalosporins) Mechanism of Action.” Medical Pharmacology. Pharmacology Corner, 29 Nov. 2008. Web. 21 Aug. 2012.

    Pitout JD, Sanders CC, Sanders WE Jr. Antimicrobial resistance with focus on beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Am J Med 1997; 103:51.

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