SKU: N061

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Description

Nitrofurantoin Sodium is the sodium salt form of Nitrofurantoin, a broad-spectrum nitrofuran antibiotic that is used as a substrate of bacterial glycoprotein nitrofuran reductase. It is bacteriostatic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  It has been found to have in vitro anti-cancer activities in bladder cancer cells.  Nitrofurantoin is freely soluble in water.

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  • Nitrofurantoin (N006)

    CAS Number

    54-87-5

    Molecular Formula

    C8H5N4O5Na

    Molecular Weight

    260.14

    Mechanism of Action

    Upon entering a susceptible cell, nitrofurantoin is activated by bacterial enzymes and targets ribosomes and nucleic acids which inhibit bacterial growth and leads to death of the bacterial cells. Resistance to Nitrofurantoin may be chromosomal or plasmid-mediated.

    Storage Conditions

    Ambient, <30┬░C; Protect from light.

    Tariff Code

    2934.99.4700

    Spectrum

    Nitrofurantoin is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nitrofurantoin is effective against certain β-lactam resistant strains of VRE or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; a glycopeptide antibiotic resistant "superbug."

    It is also used against Enterococci, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corneybacteria, and  E. coli.

    Most strains of Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeurginosa are resistant to Nitrofurantoin.

Applications

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Nitrofuranton is toxic to human WI-38 fibroblasts in culture. and antioxidants can mitigate effect. On a molecular basis, glutathione peroxidase was the most efficient at protection (Michiels and Remacle, 1988). Nitrofurantoin can alter the morphology, viability, and phagocytic activity of bovine mammary polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, when added at 1 mg/ml. (Nickerson et al, 1995).

    Microbiology Applications

    Nitrofurantoin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • E. coli 32 µg/mL - 64 µg/mL

    For a representative list of Nitrofurantoin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Source

    Synthetic

    Assay

    >98%

References

    References

    Cadwallader DE and and Jun H (1976)  Analyt. Prof. Drug Subst. 5:345-373

    Fitzpatrick PM and Charles C. McOsker CM (1994)  Nitrofurantoin: Mechanism of action and implications for resistance development in common uropathogens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33(Suppl A):23-30  PMID 7928834

    Kamat AM ad Lamm DL (2004)  Antitumor activity of common antibiotics against superficial bladder cancer. Urol. 63(3):457-460 PMID 15028437 

    Knudsen GM, Ng Y and Gram L (2013)  Survival of bactericidal antibiotic treatment by a persister subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes. App. Environ. Microbiol. 79(23):7390-7397  PMID 24056460

    Nickerson SC, Paape MJ, Dulin AM (1985)  Effect of antibiotics and vehicles on bovine mammary polymorphonuclear leukocyte morphologic features, viability, and phagocytic activity in vitro. Am J Vet Res. 46(11):2259-2265  PMID 4073636

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