• TOKU-E gentamicin sulfate solution packaged and labeled.

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SKU: G046

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Description

Gentamicin Sulfate Solution (50 mg/ml in Water) contains Gentamicin Sulfate dissolved in water and filter-sterilized for use in prevention and control of bacterial contamination.  The product is sterile.

Gentamicin Sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex discovered in 1963 and is derived from fermentation of  Micromonospora purpurea or M. echinospora composed of different components including the Gentamicin C complex  (gentamicin C1gentamicin C1a, and gentamicin C2) which makes  up 80% of the compound and has the highest antibacterial activity. Gentamicin A, B, X, and a few others make up the remaining 20% of the compound and have lower antibiotic activity. 

For more Gentamicin products, click here.

    CAS Number

    1405-41-0

    Molecular Formula

    C21H43N5O7

    Molecular Weight

    477.60

    Mechanism of Action

    Aminoglycosides target the 30S ribosomal subunit, blocking the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from acceptor to donor. This results in an inability to read mRNA ultimately producing a faulty or nonexistent protein.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8┬░C

    Tariff Code

    3004.10.5060

    Spectrum

    Gentamicin Sulfate is broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is effective against several strains of Mycoplasma. It also combats certain β-lactam sensitive VRE or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; a "superbug."

Applications

    Cancer Applications

    Ovarian melanoma tumor cells was studied in 3D culture and Gentamicin Sulfate was used to prevent contamination when studying ovarian cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, 222, EG, and A2780-PAR ) and normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines (HIO 1120 and HIO 180). Tumor cells formed matrix-rich tubular networks containing channels surrounding spheroids of tumor cells, and this network may represent either a primitive microcirculatory-like network, or a remodeled vascularized portion of a tumor (Sood et al, 2001).

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Gentamicin was found to inhibit Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity in rat erythrocytes (Temel et al, 2018).

    A bovine macrophage (Bomac) cell line was used but proved to be contaminated with BVDV (bovine viral diarrhea virus). Both infected and cured cells were tested for uptake of Mycoplasma bovis in an in vitro model to dissect the molecular and cellular details of bovine mycoplasmosis using Gentamicin from TOKU-E in a gentamicin protection assay (Burgi et al, 2018).

    Gentamicin is an effective in vitro bacterial inhibitor that is nontoxic in tissue culture. It was non-toxic to RMK (Rhesus monkey kidney), HeLa, amnion, GMK, and WI-38 cell lines. It can also be used in virus tissue culture as it does not inhibit virus replication. (Rudin et al, 1970).

    When primary cultures of embryonic rat fibroblasts are exposed to Gentamicin, they develop typical lysosomal phospholipidosis characterized by decreased sphingomyelinase activity, increase in lipid phosphorus, and appearance of 'myeloid bodies' in lysosomes. However, when inhibitors of cysteine proteinases were used (leupeptin, E-64), authors observed a protective effect which could be due to increased sphingomyelinase activity (Montenez et al, 1984).

    Microbiology Applications

    Gentamicin sulfate is commonly used as a selective agent to select for cells containing the gentamicin resistance gene, aacj-AaphD or aacC1. Gentamicin sulfate is generally used at a concentration of 10 - 50 µg/mL for eukaryotic cells and 15 µg/ml for prokaryotic cells.

    Media Supplements

    Gentamicin can be used as a selective agent in several types of isolation media:

    Columbia Blood Agar - Gardnerella vaginalis Selective Supplement

    VRE Medium - VRE Selective Supplement

    Burkholderia cepacia Agar Base - Burkholderia cepacia Selective Supplement

    Plant Biology Applications

    Gentamicin sulfate inhibited differentiation of tracheary elements in pith parenchyma cells in cultures of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Romana) at concentrations of 50-100 µg/ml. Similar results were obtained with cultured explants of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Callus formation was suppressed with increasing levels of Gentamicin Sulfate in both tissue systems. When studying cell division or xylem differentiation in culture, it is best to use ≤ 10 µg/ml.

Specifications

    Form

    Solution

    Concentration

    50mg/mL

References

    References

    Bürgi N, Josi C, Bürki S and Schweizer, Pilo P (2018) Mycoplasma bovis co-infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine macrophages. Vet. Res. 49(1):2. PMID 29316971

    Davis, BD (1987) Mechanism of bactericidal action of aminoglycosides. Microbiol. Rev. 51(3): 341-350 PMID 3312985 Kadurugamuwa JL, Clarke AJ and Beveridge TJ (1993) Surface action of gentamicin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol 175(18):5798-5805 PMID 8376327

    Martin NL and Bevridge TJ (1986) Gentamicin interaction with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29(6):1079-1087 PMID 2425732

    Montenez JP, Kishore BK, Maldaque P and Tulkens PM (1984) Leupeptin and E-64, inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, prevent gentamicin-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis in cultured rat fibroblasts. Toxicol Lett. 73(3):201-208 PMID 8091428

    Rudin A, Healey A, Phillips CA, Gump DW and Forsyth BR (1970) Antibacterial activity of gentamicin sulfate in tissue culture. Appl. Microbiol. 20(6):989-990. PMID 4992660

    Sood AK (2001) Molecular determinants of ovarian cancer plasticity. Am. J. Pathol. 158(4):1279-1288. PMID 11290546

    Stypulkowska K, Blazewicz A, Fijalek Z, Sarna K.(2010) Determination of gentamicin sulphate composition and related substances in pharmaceutical preparations by LC with Charged Aerosol Detection. Chromatograph. 72(11-12):1225-1229 PMID 21212825

    Temel Y, Ayna A, Shafeeq IH and Ciftci M (2018) In vitro effects of some antibiotics on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat (Rattus norvegicus) erythrocyte. Drug and Chemical Toxicol. DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2018.1481083

    Vydrin, AF (2003) Component composition of gentamicin sulfate preparations. Pharma. Chem. J 37(8): 448-449.

    Wan J et al (1994) Intravesical instillation of gentamicin sulfate: In vitro, rat, canine, and human studies. Urology 43(4):531-536. PMID 8154077

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