SKU: C092

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Description

Cyclosporin, USP is a mixture of cyclic oligopeptide compounds first isolated from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum.  The compound inhibits T cell proliferation and thus has immunosuppressive activity.  Cyclosporin is composed of over 98% Cyclosporin A which has the most potent immunosuppressive activity.  It is soluble in DMSO and ethanol.

TOKU-E offers purified forms of cyclosporin A, B, C, D, E, and H.

    CAS Number

    59865-13-3

    Molecular Formula

    C62H111N11O12

    Molecular Weight

    1202.61

    Mechanism of Action

    After entering a T-cell, Cyclosporin A associates with cytosolic cyclophilins which help in protein folding. Cyclosporin A binds to cyclophilin and this complex binds another cytosolic protein phosphatase called Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) that dephosphorylates a transcription factor (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, or NF-AT) which is needed for expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2.). It also blocks the pathway to nitric oxide synthesis via tumor necrosis factor (TNFa) and Interleukin 1a.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8 ┬░C

Applications

    Cancer Applications

    Cyclosporins can be used to study toxicity, interactions with other compounds, and immunosuppressive activity in vitro.

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications

    Cyclosporins have used as tools to study complex biological networks and pathways, involving protein function, and protein-protein interactions. Cyclosporin A had a suppressive effect on the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon at the RNA level and HCV protein expression in cultured hepatocytes. Cyclosporin A also inhibited multiplication of the HCV genome in a human hepatocyte cell line infected with HCV using HCV-positive plasma (Watashi et al, 2003). Cyclosporin A has been used to establish Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines (Anderson and Gusella 1984).

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White crystalline powder

    Assay

    98.5-101.5% (on dried basis)

    Loss on Drying

    ≤2.0%

    Heavy Metals

    ≤0.002%

    Impurities

    Related Compounds:
    Individual impurity: ≤0.7%
    Total impurities: ≤1.5%

References

    References

    Anderson MA and Gusella JF (1984) Use of Cyclosporin A in establishing Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In Vitro 20(11):856-858. PMID 6519667

    Copelan KR, Yatscoff RW and McKenna RM (1990) Immunosuppressive activity of Cyclosporine metabolites compared and characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Clin. Chem. 36(2): 225-229. PMID 2137384

    Laupacis A et al. PA (1982) Cyclosporin A: A powerful immunosuppressant. Can. Med Assoc. J 126(9):1041-1046 PMID 7074504 Matsuda S and Koyasu S (2000) Mechanisms of Action of Cyclosporine. Immunopharmacol. 47(2-3): 119-125. PMID 10878286

    Stiller, CR and Ulan RA (1981) Cyclosporin A: A Powerful Immunosuppressant."Can. Med. Assn. 126 (1981): 1041-046.

    Wang, PC et al. (1989) Isolation of 10 Cyclosporine Metabolites from Human Bile. Drug Metab. Dispos. 17(3): 292-296 PMID 2568911

    Watashi K, Hijikata M, Hosaka M, Yamaji M, Shimotohno K (2003) Cyclosporin A suppresses replication of hepatitis C virus genome in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatol. 38(5):1282-1288. PMID 14578868

    Zheng XS, Chan T, and Zhou HH (2004) Genetic and genomic approaches to identify and study the targets of bioactive small molecules. Chem and Biol 11(5):609-618 PMID 15157872

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