• Amoxicillin sodium salt packaged and labeled.

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SKU: A059

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Description

Amoxicillin is an extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotic and is similar in structure to ampicillin. Resistance to amoxicillin can be attributed to β-lactamase enzymes secreted by a resistant cell.

TOKU-E offers three forms of amoxicillin: Amoxicillin Trihydrate (A004), Amoxicillin Sodium (A059), and Amoxicillin : Potassium Clavulanate (2:1) (A054). In aqueous solution, amoxicillin sodium is freely soluble (50 mg/mL) while amoxicillin is sparingly soluble (3.4 mg/mL).

Both forms have similar potencies and are suitable for microbiology use; however, amoxicillin sodium is easier to work with in aqueous solution. Potassium clavulanate (clavulanic acid) is a β-lactamase inhibitor which can irreversibly inactivate β-lactamase enzymes of β-lactam resistant microbes preventing them from breaking down β-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin can be combined with potassium clavulanate for greater efficacy against β-lactam resistant strains.

    CAS Number

    34642-77-8

    Molecular Formula

    C16H18N3NaO5S

    Molecular Weight

    387.39

    Mechanism of Action

    Like all β-lactams, amoxicillin targets PBP’s (penicillin binding proteins) involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised ultimately leading to the death of the cell.

    Storage Conditions

    2-8°C

    Tariff Code

    2941.10.5000

    Spectrum

    Amoxicillin targets a wide range of β-lactamase negative gram positive and gram negative bacteria including E. coli and a number of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Because peptidoglycan is synthesized in gram positive and gram negative bacteria, amoxicillin can be used against a wide variety of microbes.

Applications

    Microbiology Applications

    Amoxicillin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram positive and gram negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.3 µg/mL - 32 µg/mL
    • Haemophilus influenzae 0.125 µg/mL - >64 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of amoxicillin MIC values, click here.

Specifications

    Form

    Powder

    Appearance

    White or almost white crystalline powder

    Source

    Semi-synthetic

    Water Content (Karl Fisher)

    ≤3.0%

    pH

    8.0-10.0

    Optical Rotation

    +240° to +290°

    Assay

    (Dried Basis): ≥80.0%

    Impurities

    Related Substances
    Amoxicillin dimer: ≤3.0%
    Any impurity: ≤3.0%
    Sum of impurities: ≤9.0%
    2-Ethyl hexanoic acid: ≤1.0%

    Residual Solvents

    Ethanol: Not more than 0.5%
    Methyl acetate: Not more than 0.5%

References

    References

    Guzmán, Flavio, MD. "Beta Lactams Antibiotics (penicillins and Cephalosporins) Mechanism of Action.” Medical Pharmacology. Pharmacology Corner, 29 Nov. 2008. Web. 21 Aug. 2012.

    Pitout JD, Sanders CC, Sanders WE Jr. Antimicrobial resistance with focus on beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Am J Med 1997; 103:51.

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