Thiamine is a member of the B vitamins (B1) and is commonly used in cell culture media. Thiamine is freely soluble in water (500 mg/mL) and glycerol, and slightly soluble in ethanol (10 mg/mL).
Thiamine is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian cells. In addition, thiamine serves as a precursor for thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme involved in amino acid and carbohydrate synthesis.
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Butterworth, R. F. "Neurotransmitter Function in Thiamine-deficiency Encephalopathy." Neurochemistry International 4.6 (1982): 449-64. www.ncbi.gov. Web. 31 Aug. 2012.